Power

We do not know, how the car of the future will look like, but it will definitely be electric.

Energy technology is setting the course for our future. This area ensures that electrical energy is provided safely, sufficiently, cost-effectively and in an environmentally compatible manner. The courses focusses on power generation, renewable energy, power distribution and smart grids as well as on e-mobility, electric drives and control of drive systems.

Module Overview

Identifier

Modul Name

Credits

Semester

 

common modules

   

M01

Technical Management

5 CP

1

M02

Team Project

5 CP

2

M03

Internship

30 CP

3

M04

Master Module

30 CP

4

 

compulsory modules

   

MP01

Advanced High Voltage Technology

5 CP

1

MP02

Power System Operation

5 CP

1

MP03

Renewable Energy Systems

5 CP

1

MP04

Embedded Programming & Design of Real-Time Control Systems

5 CP

1

MP05

Power Electronics for Drives and Energy Systems

5 CP

2

MA06

Advanced Control of Electrical Drives

5 CP

2

MA07

Model-Based Design, HiL & PiL Systems

5 CP

2

 

elective modules

   

MPwp01

Lab Module on Power Electronics

2,5 CP

1 or 2

MPwp02

Automotive Electrical Power Train

2,5 CP

1 or 2

MPwp03

Stationary & Mobile Energy Storage Systems

5 CP

1 or 2

MPwp04

Lab Module on Electric Drives

2,5 CP

1 or 2

MPwp05

Switch Gear

2,5 CP

1 or 2

MAwp06

Power Systems Planning

2,5 CP

1 or 2

MPwp07

Smart Grids

5 CP

1 or 2

MPwp08

Applied Programming

5 CP

1 or 2

MPwp09

Hydrogen Technique and Fuel Cells

2,5 CP

1 or 2

Module Description

Identifier

Modul Name

 

M01

Technical Management

Content of course “Project Management”

This course provides an introduction to professional project management.

It covers the areas

- introduction into industry process models, e.g. CMMi and SPICE,

- project structure, phases, roles and workflow,

- relevant methods for requirements engineering, concept development, realization and testing

- planning and estimation methods,

- risk management,

- project tracking metrics,

- team building and team management,

- change and configuration management,

- quality assurance and reviews,

- agile methods like SCRUM.

 

Content of course “Engineering Responsibility”

This course provides an introduction into legal aspects of engineering and discusses the aspect of engineering responsibility. It covers the areas

- legal and ethical aspects of engineering responsibility

- relevance of penal law, civil law and liability

- patent rights

- employment law

- special liability for safety and security systems

- relevant differences in German, European and international laws

 

M02

Team Project

Content of course “Team Project”

In this course, the students execute a practical project using the methods presented in the module “Technical Management”. It covers the areas:

- practical development of a technical system (project work)

- project management and work package agreement,

- requirements engineering, system design,

- implementation and testing,

- team building and team communication,

- and documentation and presentation of the results.

 

M03

Internship

Content of German Class:

- German Class 1: A1 level or higher

- German Class 2: higher than German Class 1 level, at least A2 level

 

Content of Preliminary Seminar:

- Preparative items (such as regulations and application matters) are presented.

 

Content of Internship:

The student has to solve an engineering task in the area of electrical engineering and information technology under the guidance of an industrial supervisor and an academic supervisor. This internship work can involve one of the following areas:

- Research and development work

- Project planning and design

- Manufacturing, preparation of work

- Assembly

- Test bed, quality control

 

 

M04

Master Module

Module Content

- Practically and/or theoretically oriented scientific work in the area of the chosen major

- Written thesis

- Colloquium

 

Identifier

Modul Name

MP01

Advanced High Voltage Technology

Module Content

Content of course „Advanced High Voltage Technology – Lecture”:

Participants will be exposed to and gain theoretical experience with high voltage systems for high AC and high DC voltages. The course will cover:

- Introduction into HVAC and HVDC applications.

- Short repetition of breakdown in gases, in solids and in liquids.

- Electromagnetic field calculations and breakdown behavior influenced by homogeneous, quasi-homogeneous- and in-homogeneous arrangements and by polarity effect.

- Dimensioning of high voltage components based on dimensioning rules of gases, solids and liquids. For identical technical requirements three different high voltage systems shall be dimensioned and compared critically: cable versus gas-insulated switchgear versus air-insulated switchgear. The aspects like size, weight and life time shall be taken into account.

- Generation of high impulse voltages using a marx-generator: calculation of a 4 stage-design and evaluation of different methods to improve to an 8-stage-design.

- Sources of over-voltages in networks and countermeasures like surge MO-surge arresters or additional lightning protection such as double-earth conductors on top of overhead lines.

- Design and calculation of impulse-current test-circuits to test surge arresters.

- Measuring methods of impulse currents and their limitations.

- Partial discharge recognition in AC-systems to prevent failure occurrence in medium and high voltage components and systems. Use of phase-resolved-pattern-recognition of partial discharges to classify the failure source.

- Special challenge of detecting and interpretation of partial discharges in DC-systems. Students shall investigate partial discharge measuring methods in a self-contained literature study and present their results group-wise in the lecture. The effect and a detection solution are demonstrated afterwards within the high voltage lab.

- Development process based on the development steps of an gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) product. Main focus hereby is the patent disclosure process.

 

Content of course „Advanced High Voltage Technology – Lab”:

Participants will gain practical experience in the following topics:

Performing and measuring of impulse voltage and impulse current tests:

- Performing impulse voltage tests with an 800 kV-marx-generator.

- Measuring and comparison of impulse voltages provided by a compensated ohmic divider and a damped capacitive divider. Influence of the earthing network will be demonstrated. Students shall optimize the given earthing system. The gained measuring results shall be proven by calculation of the divider ratios based on the used components of the dividers.

- Calculation and performing of impulse current tests.

 

Performing and measuring of partial discharge measurements based on samples and real products

- Students shall built-up the partial discharge measuring system by their own.

- Calibration and check of ground noise of the partial discharge measuring system.

- Investigations on different samples and real products. Comparison and critical discussion of the measuring results.

- Interpretation of phase resolved pattern recognition and classification of failure sources.

 

- Introduction into the complex area of partial discharges at DC. Students will get publications about partial discharge effects at DC and shall prepare the physical background by themselves. Students getting familiar with phenomenon of DC-failure and difficulties of partial discharge measurement at DC-voltages.

MP02

Power System Operation

Module Content

This course provides an introduction to professional power system operations including operational planning based on standard tools like SCADA and Training Systems. The course covers the theoretical side and explains the grid operations in real time on a training system using an industry standard control system. The lab covers fundamental concepts of power grid operations in real situations.

 

Power System Operation – Lecture

- Review of the relevant component models of power systems

- Structure of power systems and Interaction of power system components in the system context

- Architecture of control centers including information technology (RTU)

- SCADA and EMS software functions in control centers

- Strategies for operational planning and optimization

- Significance and means of voltage and reactive power control

- Power frequency control and power system stability

- Power system faults and functions of protection relays

- Strategies for clearing power system emergencies

 

Power System Operation – Lab

The participants will use a power system training simulator to get experience of basic operational tasks including normal operation and handling of disturbances.

- Analyzing power system components and their interaction in the system context

- Operational tasks during normal operation

- Exploring component limits

- Reactions of power system components during power system disturbances

- Analyzing power system faults, operational tasks during emergencies

- Control center operational handling in coordination with grid service staff

MP03

Renewable Energy Systems

Module Content

Todays and future societies crucially rely on a secure, stable and uninterruptible energy supply. A key factor in this context represents the strategic expansion and integration of renewable energy systems in present and future energy systems. Besides providing students with up-to-date and advanced knowledge of renewable energy techniques and systems, the lecture also addresses contemporary and future challenges such as net-integration or the storage of electricity generated by fluctuating renewable power generation systems. In detail, the course covers the following subjects:

- Analysis of current energy needs and future energy demands as well as the resulting environmental, social, social-economic and political implications.

- Review of the basic physics used in RE studies (Energy fundamentals, heat transfer mechanisms, laws of thermodynamics, conservation of energy and momentum,).

- Comparison to conventional energy systems (fossil fuels and nuclear energy) and their underlying conversion processes.

- Fundamentals of renewable energy sources like solar radiation, wind-, geothermal power.

- Use of solar power by solar thermal and solar thermal electricity systems

- Power generation by photovoltaic, photovoltaic system design (stand-alone and grid connected systems), photovoltaic power electronics.

- Wind energy resources, site analysis, wind energy conversion systems, onshore and offshore wind park design.

- Besides the main topics of solar and wind energy conversion systems, the lecture addresses geothermal power systems, hydro and tidal power systems as well as biomass power systems.

- The role of energy storage in renewable energy systems: Possible options and solutions: From pumped hydro storage up to power-to-gas technology.

- Future outlook on renewable energy: Potentials and limitations, drivers and future challenges, policy and planning

- Simulation of renewable energy systems

- Economics of renewable energy systems

MP04

Embedded Programming & Design of Real-Time Control Systems

Embedded Programming & Design of Real-Time Control Systems - Lecture

The aim of this course is to provide students with a solid background of embedded system fundamentals for the application in modern power electronic control systems. In particular, the course will cover

- an introduction to real-time control systems for power electronic applications – Basic principles and typical application scenarios.

- a review of basic control principles: design and analysis of closed loop control systems.

- general embedded system attributes: Real-time capabilities, concurrency, responsiveness, reliability and fault handling, diagnostics and system-constraint metrics (costs, power consumption and performance).

- the anatomy of state-of-the-art microcontroller systems: an introduction to the working principles of the CPU sub-system, internal memories as well as typical peripherals such as GPIOs, ADCs, Timers, PWM cores and communication interfaces.

- the software development ecosystem for embedded control design: A short introduction to compilers, assemblers, linkers, loaders and debuggers.

- the fundamentals of low-level, hardware-related programming in C.

- the fundamentals of using fixed-point arithmetic’s for digital signal processing.

- interrupts and interrupt service routine concepts – state machine based program control and low-power design techniques.

- an introduction to real-time operating systems: Basic principles, scheduling, inter-task communication and resource sharing.

- Model based design techniques: automatic code generation for embedded control systems.

- advanced µC solutions for digital power applications: Dedicated peripherals for optimizing digital control systems.

- a design example: Digital control techniques for synchronous DC/DC buck converters.

 

Embedded Signal Processing Systems - Lab

The lab focuses on teaching practical skills related to programming of embedded systems using C:

- Software design and interfacing of simple external components such as buttons, switches and LEDs.

- Design and implementation of a simple interrupt driven digital control loop using peripherals such as ADCs, comparators or PWM units.

- Model-based design of embedded control systems using high-level design, simulation and code generation tools for rapid prototyping, and hardware-in-the-loop testing.

MP05

Power Electronics for Drives and Energy Systems

Module Content

- Basic Principles and Issues of Power Electronics

- Mathematical Analysis and Computer Simulation

- Semiconductor Switches, passive Components, Converter Design and recent Advances

- Basic and Advanced Converter Topologies, Modulation and Control

- Power Electronic Systems for Drives

- Voltage Source Converter for Electric Drives

- Active Front End

- Power Electronic Systems for Renewables and Distribution

- Converter for Wind Energy Conversion System

- Converter for Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

- Converter for High-Voltage DC Transmission

- Active Power Filter

MP06

Advanced Control of Electrical Drives

Module Content

This module explores advanced modelling and modern control strategies of electric drive systems, focusing on induction and permanent magnet synchronous machines.

- structure and components of controlled drives, application areas

- description of the dynamic behaviour of electrical machines

- development of transfer functions, structural diagrams and simulation models for electric drive systems

- control schemes for electrical machines

- field-orientated control

- direct torque control

- introduction to sensorless control

- introduction to predictive control

- controller design and optimisation

- controller structures

- stability criteria

- standard optimisation methods

- introduction to parameter estimation and adaptive control

MP07

Advanced Control of Electrical Drives

Module Content

The aim of this course is to provide students with a solid background in Model-based design (MBD) methods with a strong focus on Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) and Processor-in-the-Loop (PIL) techniques. The course concentrates on embedded control software development for electrical drive and power electronic applications. In particular, the course covers:

- The system design challenge: Managing complexity in highly competitive market segments.

- Reviewing conventional development methodologies for digital control system design.

- An introduction to Model-based design: Motivation, basic principles and application areas.

- Modelling power electronic and electrical drive systems.

- Model-in-the-Loop (MIL) simulations.

- Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) simulations.

- Real-Time Simulations using standard PC hardware.

- Processor-in-the-Loop (PIL) simulations.

- Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulations.

- Automatic code generation.

- Model verification and validation, design of experiments, model refinement.

   

Identifier

Modul Name

MPwp01

Lab Module on Power Electronics

Module Content

The students should gain practical experience with regards to the contents of the corresponding theory modules on Power Electronics for Drives and Energy Systems. The students will carry out different lab experiments on power electronic systems and electrical drives with the measurement of the characteristic electrical, mechanical and other physical values. Each lab exercise is accompanied by a simulation exercise which includes the development of a simulation model. Each lab exercise will be completed with a lab report.

MPwp02

Automotive Electrical Power Train

Module Content

- power train topologies of electric and hybrid vehicles

- components of the electrical power train

- electrical on-board power network

- energy storage – technology, selection criteria and comparison

- power electronics, electrical machines and motor control – technology, selection criteria and comparison

- component sizing

- physical basics and dynamic vehicle model

- tractive effort, power flow and energy consumption

- control strategies

MPwp03

Stationary & Mobile Energy Storage Systems

Content of course „ Stationary & Mobile Energy Storage Systems”:

Participants will be exposed to and gain theoretical experience with energy storage systems (stationary and mobile solutions). The course will cover:

- Importance of storage systems for modern energy systems and mobility

- General characteristic parameters and technical requirements of energy storage systems.

- Stationary energy storage systems:

- Design and dimensioning of compressed air energy storage systems and application examples in network protection (third level frequency control).

- Design and dimensioning of pump storage energy systems and their application limits.

- Potential of hydrogen energy storage systems: technical feasibility and burden.

- Power-to-Gas solutions and application experience.

- Innovative energy storage solutions (like thermo-electrical energy storage systems, inverse air compressed storage systems in deep water, pump storage in offshore environment) and critical comparison. Technical potential will be critical discussed against series production challenge.

- Methods to choose the most suited energy storage concept as a function of the technical requirement versus costs.

- Mobile energy storage systems:

- Battery cell technologies. Design and dimensioning of battery energy storage systems and battery management systems.

- Design of fuel cells and hydrogen storage

- Double layer capacitors and design and dimensioning of super caps energy storage systems.

- Flywheel storage

MPwp04

Lab Module on Electric Drives

Module Content

The students should gain practical experience with regards to the contents of the corresponding theory modules on Advanced Control of electric Drives. The students will carry out different lab experiments on electrical drives with the measurement of the characteristic electrical, mechanical and other physical values. Each lab exercise is accompanied by a simulation exercise which includes the development of a simulation model. Each lab exercise will be completed with a lab report.

MPwp05

Switch Gear

Content of course „Switchgear – Lecture”:

Participants will be exposed to and gain theoretical experience with switchgear for high voltage and medium voltage. Furthermore, special solutions for dc circuit breaker for medium voltages are covered. The course will cover:

- Layouts and concepts of substations with respect to high-, medium- and low-voltage levels.

- Integration of switchgear into substations and interaction with different substation layouts.

- Functionality, technical requirements and application of circuit breakers, load disconnectors, disconnectors and earthing switches.

- Arc quenching in circuit breakers (high voltage, medium voltage, low voltage) and load disconnectors with respect to AC and DC systems. Consideration of arc quenching in SF6, Air and Vacuum.

- Protection philosophy of switchgear (selectivity by rating and/or time scaling).

- Design and of test facilities to obtain highest testing power: direct test circuits, synthetic test circuits with current or voltage superposition. Dimensioning of synthetic circuits with current superposition for power switching tests.

- Normative regulations for type tests (like power switching or capacitive switching) and routine tests

- Future trends

MPwp06

Power Systems Planning

Module Content

Participants will be exposed to and gain theoretical and practical experience with planning of power systems. Focus lies with distribution networks (medium and low voltage) under the presence of dispersed generation. The course covers:

- Network topology for high, medium and low voltage

- Voltage stability in power systems

- Power quality

- Voltage control in distribution networks for integration of dispersed generation (wind and solar)

- Normative references

- Future trends

Theoretical knowledge is applied to study cases for computer-aided network planning (e.g. NEPLAN).

MPwp07

Smart Grids

Module Content

Smart Grid Technology – Lecture

- challenges, chances, drivers, political targets, approaches of solutions

- smart grid research projects and research funding

- development of the contribution of renewable production, installed capacity versus energy produced

- energy data evaluation, energy estimates, energy, power, energy density

- forecast requirements, data analysis and approaches: consumption, production, price sensitivity

- energy storage: properties, storage applications, design and management

- virtual power plants, load management, demand response, electric vehicles as buffer storage

- smart meter applications: transparency of consumption, energy market solutions, trading platforms

- innovative energy tariffs, incentive models, prosumer, use acceptance, system requirements

- distribution system automation, distribution system applications, voltage control in low voltage grid

- increase of transmission capacity, flexible AC transmission systems

- micro grids, energy supply of electrical islands

 

Smart Grid Operational Training – Lab

- The participants will use a power system training simulator to get experience of operational tasks in future energy systems based on renewable and distributed energy sources.

- wind energy, storage management, virtual power plants, load management, weather depending renewable production

MPwp08

Applied Programming

Module Content

The module aims at software knowledge and skills of a power engineer who is working on general engineering tasks (but not in the development of complex software systems or software products). It also enables professional negotiation with software manufacturers during the acquisition of software solutions.

 

The module covers the following topics:

- Introduction of a universally applicable scripting language including (basic) graphical user interface support

- development of small to medium size software tools with elementary graphical user interface for specific

- engineering tasks (on the work group level), introduction to software testing

- data formatting and preparation for application programs and visualization tools

- transformation between different data formats (Excel, CSV, XML), merging data from different sources

- Methods and tools for the analysis and visualization of measured data

o different types of diagrams, advantages and disadvantages

o methods of data quality assurance, bad data detection and elimination

- Introduction of data base software

o limitations of spread sheet software and characteristics of data base applications

o data base setup and design, data bases queries (SQL)

o use of data base software for typical engineering tasks

- Methods and tools of requirements engineering

o methods of software specification and description, introduction of UML diagrams

o stakeholder, business process and use case identification, description, verification and management

o architectural views, structure of big software systems, decomposition and interface design

o criteria for the evaluation and selection of standard software

 

The topics are introduced in the lecture and practiced in exercises

MPwp09

Hydrogen Technique and Fuel Cells

Module Content

The module gives an overview of hydrogen technology and fuel cells. Participants will gain experience with these technologies. The course will cover

- Hydrogen, combustion, storage and handling

- Hydrogen production and electrolysis

- Hydrogen infrastructure

- Fuel cells: basic function, thermodynamics and electrochemistry, efficiency, electrical behavior

- Fuel cell types: AlkalineFuel Cell (AFC), Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell(PEMFC), DirectMethanol Fuel Cell (DMFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC), Molten Carbonate FuelCell (MCFC), Solid OxideFuelCell (SOFC)

- Fuel cell systems

- Components and assemblies for fuel cell systems

MAwp01

Model-based Real-time Simulation of Mechatronic Systems

Model-based Real-time Simulation of Mechatronic Systems – lecture

This course provides the concepts of model-based real-time simulation and system design.

The course covers the areas:

- Modelling and classification of mechatronic systems

- Application areas, requirements

- Real-time simulation and rapid prototyping methods

- Hardware-in-the-loop, software-in-the-loop and processor-in-the-loop

- Experimental validation and testing methods

- Summary, Conclusion and future prospects

 

Model-based Real-time Simulation of Mechatronic Systems – lab

This lab provides projects to design model-based real-time simulation and system design.

The lab covers the areas:

- Introduction MATLAB/SIMULINK

- Software and function development process

- Real-time simulation and rapid prototyping applications

- Automatic code generation

- Experimental validation and testing methods

MAwp04

Autonomous Mobile Robots

Module Content

Introduction to

- Application examples

- Locomotion

- Kinematics of mobile robots

- Perception for mobile robots

- Characteristics of mobile robots in structured and unstructured environments

- Mobile robot localization methods, algorithms

- Planning and navigation, incl. maps, methods for autonomous map generation and obstacle avoidance

- Navigation architectures of autonomous mobile robots

- Showcase demonstration and validation of methods using laboratory systems

MAwp05

Advanced Graphical Programming of Control Systems

Module Content

• Modeling of user interaction

• LabVIEW Queued Message Handler

• One-to-many communication .

• Managing Software Engineering in Graphical Languages

• Advanced Architectures for Graphical Languages in LabVIEW

• Object-Oriented Design and Graphical Programming

• Performance of Graphical Languages

MCwp06

(I)Iot and Cloud Networking

Module Content

Participants will be exposed to gain experience in Internet of Things (IoT) networking, in particular

Smart Home and Cloud-Networks, Smart-Grid-Communication and Cloud based industrial networks.

The course will cover:

Lecture:

- Development trends of the IoT and technological roadmap

- Reference model for IoT networks and Industrial Internet

- General terminology, structure and components of IoT and Cloud networks

- Technological challenges of IoT

- Assessment of network technologies and (new) protocols for Fog and Cloud networks

- Security assessment of IoT networks

- Design cases of Smart Grid/Smart Home and Industrial Internet

IoT-Demo-Lab:

Networks for Smart Home and Smart Industry

MCwp07

Smart Home

Module Content

Lecture:

- Introduction to smart home systems and applications

- Wired and wireless channels and models

- EIB/KNX

- PLC-systems (e.g. Homeplug)

- Wireless technologies for building (e.g. M-Bus, ZigBee, Enocean, WiFi, Homematic)

- Regulatory issues

- Security

- EMC

Lab:

- Network planning and range measurements for different smart home systems

- Qivicon smart home system

- Security in smart home systems

MMwp02

Safety in Embedded Control Systems

Content of course “Safety in Embedded Control Systems”

Participants will be exposed to and gain working experience with safety standards and safety architectures for embedded control systems. The course will cover

- introduction to safety standards like IEC61508 and ISO26262,

- analysis of safety cases,

- fundamental concepts for functional safety,

- development of fail safe and fail operational architectures

- concepts for avoiding systematic software errors (coding standards like MISRA, reviews, test strategies),

- concepts for dealing with sporadic errors,

- design patterns for freedom from interference,

- analysis of the features of modern safety controllers.

MMwp04

Advanced Software Design Techniques

Content of course “Advanced Software Design Techniques”

Review of fundamental concepts of a widely used object oriented programming language. The course will cover

- advanced data and class structures

- differences and interoperability of C and C++

- polymorphism,

- generic programming,

- introduction to the STL, string and stream library of C++,

- coding standards (MISRA),

- software metrics,

- design patterns,

- refactoring techniques,

- extensions of the C++ standard.

Design aspects like modularity, performance and software re-use will be discussed. Developing software designs using the UML and CASE tools as well as extensive hands-on programming assignments in C/C++ are an integral part of the course.